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优化电脑结构
来源:━━━━《电脑开发与应用》2002第4期作者:刘中甫网址:http://www.jh-lzf.com浏览数:6

优化电脑结构

摘  要:电脑内部各组件设备可归纳为引出线设备与非引出线设备两大类。本文简述了现行电脑结构存在的问题,并据此提出了对电脑各部件的优化方案。

主题词:电脑 结构 设备 优化

一、引言

作为一名专业的电脑维护者或电脑爱好者,我们在定位电脑的硬件故障点时,常采用的方法是最小系统法及逐一替换法。在使用这两种方法时,我们不可避免地要打开一台或多台机箱,取下或插入相应的板卡。诸多事实表明这些方法是相当麻烦的,有时不仅没有解决问题,却可能因静电及接触不良而导致新的故障,甚至会波及到用于排障的其它机器。那么,如何避免上述琐事?如何做到不用开机箱便可定位硬件故障点,不用开机箱便可取下故障的板卡,不用开机箱也不借助任何通讯线路便可使几台机器共享光驱、软驱、硬盘等各类设备呢?欲达到上述目的,我们必须优化传统的电脑结构。

二、主板与机箱

随便想想,除主板及机箱外,电脑内部所有的设备可分为有引出线设备及无引出线设备两类。显卡、声卡、网卡、MODEM及电源等为有引出线设备,而硬盘、软驱、光驱等为非引出线设备。

为了不开机箱便可方便地拔插联接在主板及机箱上的所有设备,应将现行主板位置垂直翻转90°,固定于机箱中部(如图1所示),且主板的元件面(CPU、内存条、板卡插槽)面向机箱后面,以方便带引出线板卡设备的拔插(就如拔插笔记本电脑中的PCMCIA卡一样方便)。主板背面则面向机箱前面,并将原主板正面的两个IDE接口及一个软驱接口分离出四个IDE通道联接口及两个软驱通道联接口,按一定间距(略大于一个光驱厚度)排列在主板背面,或者为兼容性,在保持现行单面主板结构的前提下,在离机箱前部一定深度(略大于一个光驱长度)的位置处,加一与主板平行的固定条,用于安装这些接口,并用现行的软硬盘通讯电缆从主板正面引联到相应的接口。

另外,机箱正面应加一带锁的防护门(很多服务器就设计有这样的防护门),这样既防尘又美观,而且还可防止非引出线设备被人随意取走,特别是可防止硬盘数据被人随意盗走。

经过这样改造的主板及机箱,既可方便地在机箱背面使用或拔插带引出线的板卡设备,又可方便地在机箱正面使用或拔插非引出线的设备。

三、引出线设备

为了在机箱背面方便地拔插有引出线的设备,必须将这些板卡(电源除外,下有详述)在现行板卡的设计面上将接口线在同一平面上旋转90°(如图2所示,所示这种设计在很多通讯设备上一直采用。

四、非引出线设备

很多服务器的硬盘可以热拔插(大多是SCSI接口),很多笔记本电脑(如联想昭阳7250笔记本电脑)的软驱与光驱可以公用同一接口,拔插也极其方便。因此,硬盘、软驱、光驱等非引出线设备应借鉴上述设计,将电源与信号线集成于一个接口,并规范所有接口,使所有非引出线设备在插入任一接口时均可被识别,并能正常使用,就如不同的引出线设备在插入任一插槽时均可被识别一样。

当然,为了兼顾现行接口,亦可采用“主板与机箱”中所述的分离接口法。

五、电源

1、机箱电源

要求在机箱外可以直接拔出或插入机箱电源盒。但电源盒的直流引出线应足够长,其主要原因是我们希望在拔下机箱电源盒后,在机箱电源盒下部能非常方便地拔插CPU及内存条,并在通电情况下非常方便地判断CPU及内存条的运行情况。

机箱电源的设计也可参考笔记本电脑的供电系统。

2、设备电源

每一个设备都可配有电源开关(即使这些设备以后都升级为无线的,也同样适用),当不需要某设备时可关闭其电源开关,这样不仅减少了每次开关机时的电冲击,而且还可节约用电,延长设备的使用寿命。如系统中的光驱真正用的时间并不多,但在开机或启动系统时,无论光驱中是否有光碟,激光头组件都要启动并搜索,若判断无光碟时激光头组件才复位,因此光驱长期处于加电状态必然会减少激光头的使用寿命。另外,高速旋转的硬盘不仅是用电大户,而且长期工作也易损坏,特别是对于有多个硬盘的机器,关闭不用的硬盘还可防止病毒侵袭,更方便地引导不同的操作系统。

关闭不用的设备,还可提高系统的引导速度及运行速度,而更大的好处则是在判断硬件故障时,对缩小硬件故障范围极有好处。

各个设备的电源开关可设计在各个设备上,亦可将所有电源开关集成在一个DIP开关上,置于机箱面板或机箱背面。对于非引出线设备,为了兼容现行接口,可在机箱电源的每个直流输出(+5V、+12V)线上加上开关,并引到机箱面板上的DIP开关上。

六、CPU与内存

如果将CPU与内存都做成板卡式的,则再方便不过了。从技术角度来说是可行的,这只不过是将针式引线换成插槽式引线而已,事实上赛阳系列CPU就类似这样。

但考虑到成本及兼容性,CPU与内存也可完全保持现状,但它们在主板上的位置应移到靠近电源盒的下部,以便在不打开机箱时,只需拔下机箱电源盒后,便可非常方便地拔插CPU及内存条,并非常方便地判断CPU及内存条的运行情况。

七、其它设备

由于主板位置已垂直翻转90°,并固定于机箱的中部,因此原主板上的PS/2接口(如鼠标口、键盘口)、COM口、LPT口、USB口及内置的显卡、声卡、MODEM卡等接口均远离机箱背板,为了使用这些接口,可用相应的通讯电缆联接到一块或几块类似多功能卡的通讯卡上,亦可直接将这些接口插座做在机箱上,再用通讯电缆联接到主板上相应的接口。

八、散热问题

机箱内设备的散热问题无疑会影响设备运行的稳定性。由于主板位于机箱中部,将机箱分隔为前后两个空间,位于主板正面的空间由于各板卡的宽度远远小于主板宽度,即空气的流动空间较大,热空气可通过电源风扇排出。而位于主板反面的空间由于有高速旋转的硬盘等散热大户,又远离电源风扇,因此应在机箱侧面加一风扇直接向外排出热空气,亦可在中部主板与机箱的上下(或左右)空隙间加装1至2个风扇,将主板反面的热量传输到主板正面空间,再由电源风扇排出。

九、结论

毫无疑问,新型结构的电脑在短期内成本会有所提高,与现行设备的兼容性也会有所影响,但随着结构的不断完善,技术的不断成熟,这些都将不成问题。因为许多技术在服务器、笔记本电脑及其它通讯设备上都已使用,我们现在要做的仅仅只是移植这些技术。

人能想到的就一定能做到。笔者深信,结构合理、性能稳定、维护方便的新型结构电脑不久将会实现。

Optimizing the structure of Computer

Abstract:  All GroupWares for computer are divided into “Device with outside line” and “Device without outside line”. The article introduces the existing problems for current computer structure, and produces scheme to optimize all GroupWare for computer.

Subjects:  Computer  Device  Structure  Optimizing

1 Foreword

We usually apply methods that are minimal system and replace one by one for a special computer safeguard or computer fan when we find trouble point for hardware. So we must open machine box of one or several machines, and pull out or plug in relevant electric board. Many facts show those methods are very inconvenient. It is possible that methods don't solve problems, and new troubles will occur owing to static or loose contact, even involve other machine for removing an obstacle. How to find trouble point but not open machine box? How to pull out or to plug in electric board but not open machine box? How to share floppy disk drive, hard disk drive, CDROM drive and so on but not open machine box without relying on other communicative device? We must optimize current structure of computer to attain the above-mentioned demands.

2 Mainboard and Machine Box

Every device may be divided into device with outside line or without outside line inside computer except mainboard and machine box. Display card, sound card, network card, MODEM and power supply are devices with outside line, and hard disk drive, floppy disk drive, CD-ROM drive are devices without outside line.

For conveniently pulling out or plugging in all devices on the mainborad and machine box, the current mainboard must be turned over vertically at angle of 90 and then be fixed to the middle of machine box. The component side of mainboard (CPU, memory and slot) faces the rear of machine box, and its other side faces the front of machine box (Fig.1). Two IDE interfaces and one floppy disk interface on the component side of original mainboard can be divided into four IDE channels and two floppy disk channels. The connected sockets of the six channels should be put in order by a distance of about one CD-ROM thickness on the rear of mainboard. Or in order to keep single side structure of mainboard, it is necessary to add a metal bar by paralleling mainboard for fix the six interfaces. And distance between every interface is also about one CD-ROM thickness, they be separately connected to the floppy drive interface and the IDE interface on the component side original mainboard by cable.

In addition, it is needed to add a protecting door with lock as many computer servers. This is not only dustproof and good-looking but also prevents somebody from taking away the device without outside line, especially hard disk.

After mainboard and machine box are reformed as the above method, pulling out, plugging in or using all devices is more convenient.

3 Device With Outside line

For conveniently pulling out or plugging in device with outside line on the rear of the machine box, the interface of those circuit cards must be rotated at 90 angle at same plane (Fig.2). This kind of design has been adopted on many communicative devices.

4 Device Without Outside line

The hard disk of many servers can be pulled out with electricity, the floppy drive and CD-ROM drive of some portable computers use same interface. Therefore, the design of hard disk drive, floppy disk drive, CD-ROM drive and so on must use the above method for reference. Exactly specking, it is ideal to standardize all interfaces, and all devices with outside line can be discerned and used normally just as all devices without outside line do when they are plugged in any slot.

Of course, considering the matching of the original mainboard, the method separating interface can also used according to what has been mentioned in the part two “Mainboard and Machine Box”.

5 Power Supply

1). Power on the Machine Box

The power supply on machine box must be pulled out or plugged in directly, and their D.C. output cable must be enough long. The main reason is to conveniently pull out and plug in CPU and memory, so that survey its run state when we pull out power box.

The design of power supply on machine box may refer to portable computer.

2). Power on the Device

Every device may add a switch, even if those devices are wireless later. The power switch of device can be turned off when it is not used. It doesn't only reduce electric lash when turning on or turning off the computer, but also save electric energy and extend life of device. For example, it can prevent virus from damage data, and it can also separately start different operating system after turning off the power of hard disk that are not used temporarily, if computer have several hard disks.

To close the suspended device will improve speed of starting or running of system, and reduce range of trouble point when we find trouble of hardware.

The switch of every device may be placed separately on itself, or be integrated to DIP(Double In-line Package) switch on the front or the rear of machine box.

To be compatible with old interface, a switch can be added to all D.C. output, such as +5V,-5V,+12V,-12V,cable of power supply of machine box for device without outside line, and those switches are connected to the DIP on the front or the rear of machine box.

6 CPU and Memory

It is very convenience if CPU and memory are made in board card. This is feasible, because this is only a transformation from pin to slot type. In fact, celecon series CPU use the similar way.

To consider cost and compatibility, CPU and memory may completely keep current state but they must be moved to under power supply on the machine box. In this case, it is very convenience to pull out or to plug in CPU and memory and to observe their running state though pulling out power supply box without opening.

7.  Other Devices

Because position of mainboard has been changed, so that PS/2 interface, COM interface, LPT interface, USB interface and integrated interface such as display card, sound card and MODEM are far away from the rear of machine box. Therefore, those interfaces may be put together and fixed on machine box., then connected to the corresponding interface on mainboard by cable, or connected to one or several cards which we call the multi-function card.

8 Heat-Diffusing Capability

If temperature is too high in machine box, it will certainly influence the stability of the running device. Taking the mainboard as a boundary, the space in machine box is divided into two parts. One part is the rear part space in machine box where there are CPU, memory and devices with outside line, the other part is the front part space in machine box where there are devices without outside line. The heat of the rear space in machine box is removed by fan of power supply on machine box. For removing heat of the front space in machine box, one or two fans are fixed to the top clearance and bottom clearance between mainboard and machine box. The two fans remove heat of the front space in machine box, i.e. the heat of devices without outside line such as hard disk in the rear space of machine box, then the heat is removed by fan of power supply on machine box.

9 Conclusion

Undoubtedly, the cost of the new type structure computer will rise in short time, and the compatibility of all devices in it will decrease. But the problems will be improved soon, because many above-mentioned technologies have been applied on computer server, portable electric brain and some communication equipment, and what we need to do is to transplant these technologies.